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LEDs have become so common, that chances are, you saw LEDs on your way to work or school this morning, whether you realized it or not.
Inside these solid-state chips, a thin layer of electron-deprived semiconductor (blue) is placed next to a thin layer of semiconductor that has a surplus of electrons (red).
The semiconductor with the missing electrons is called the P-type semiconductor, and the semiconductor with the extra electrons is called the N-type semiconductor.
It is this movement of electrons that produces light!
You won’t get the same result if you were to hook up the battery in the opposite orientation.
This insulating area basically works against the movement of any other electrons or holes because it repels them.
This area is called the “depletion zone,” and no electrons can pass through this insulating area.
Luckily for you, I’ve compiled a summary of the basics so that you too can understand how LEDs work their magic.
It is the forces caused by the battery’s voltage on the holes and electrons that begin to make the depletion region grow smaller and eventually disappear completely.
Once the depletion region is gone, the electrons and holes can begin to move around again.
The positive terminal of the battery would attract the electrons, essentially pulling them further away from the holes that they want to fill.
The negative terminal of the battery would also attract the holes, pulling them further away from the electrons.
The placement of these ions induces an electric field within the solid-state chip.